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Types of Traumatic Brain Injuries

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are severe, potentially life-altering injuries that can result from various accidents. They can lead to long-term physical, cognitive and emotional consequences and require long-term medical care.

Primary brain injuries

Primary brain injury refers to the immediate and profound damage to the brain that occurs at the moment of impact. This type of injury is considered more or less complete at the time of the accident, such as a car crash or a fall. The are two main categories:

  • Closed brain injury: Closed brain injuries happen when there is a non-penetrating injury to the brain without any break in the skull. These injuries result from rapid forward or backward movements and shaking of the brain inside the bony skull, causing bruising and tearing of brain tissue and blood vessels. Car accidents and falls are common causes of closed brain injuries.
  • Penetrating brain injury: Penetrating injuries occur when there is a break in the skull, such as when objects pierce the brain. These injuries often result in localized damage and have a risk of infection and brain tissue exposure.

Secondary brain injuries

Secondary brain injury refers to the changes that develop over time, ranging from hours to days, after the primary brain injury. These changes involve a cascade of cellular, chemical, tissue or blood vessel alterations in the brain, further contributing to the destruction of brain tissue.

Diffuse axonal injuries (DAI)

Diffuse axonal injury is a severe form of traumatic brain injury caused by shearing or tearing of the brain’s long connecting nerve fibers (axons). This injury occurs when the brain shifts and rotates inside the bony skull, leading to widespread damage across various brain regions. DAI often results in a state of coma and may not be visible on standard brain imaging tests.

Traumatic brain injuries can have devastating consequences for individuals and their families. If you’ve suffered a TBI as a result of someone else’s negligence or recklessness, call the knowledgeable auto accident attorneys at Jakubowski, Robertson, Maffei, Goldsmith & Tartaglia, LLP right away.